I apologize right up front if I haven't RTFM but I have not found a concise description of what needs to happen for this use case.
These are the steps I would like to implement:
 Given a SOAP over HTTPS web service, I would like to connect it (register it?) with ESB 4.4. Is UDDI required for this step? I understand this is known as a business service.
 I'd like to transform the business service in some insignificant way on the bus.
 I'd like to consume the transformed service.
 And, I'd like to do it with SOAP over HTTP(s). I'll look at JMS later on.
All I'm looking for is someone to help me understand what JBoss components come into play in this scenario. JBossWS?
Is there a tutorial or white paper or quick start or ...?
Thanks in advance,
Take a look at the SoapProcessor in the ProgrammersGuide.
There are also quickstarts in the download which show you how to expose services via web services.
Yes a UDDI is required to use the ESB, it comes with Juddi but you can also use other uddi implementations.