I don't have the code here, but IIRC, it does work with Quartz. In tests I use RAMJobStore (production uses DB store).
Since Quartz doesn't depend on the container, there should be no (major :)) problems.
As for the timer services, no idea really. Try setting JBoss log levels to TRACE and see what happens on startup. If the timer services gets installed at all, you still may need to tweak the @Resource to get it injected (or xml files).
That's the thing, the (EJB) timer service is not installed - and I haven't found any way to install it. The logs read:
WARN [org.jboss.ejb3.timerservice.jboss.JBossTimerServiceFactory] (main) TIMER SERVICE IS NOT INSTALLED
Perhaps Embedded JBoss doesn't support it. I believe I got the same exception even when trying to use Quartz, but I should double-check. I'll get back on this when it comes on top of my pile.