It is not possible at this time. All node content (except for federated content) for a repository is stored within a single Infinispan cache.
Have you thought about using the "mix:lastModified" mixin, which makes ModeShape automatically set the "jcr:lastModified" and "jcr:lastModifiedBy" properties whenever the node is changed? The "mix:created" mixin does the same thing for the "jcr:createdAt", "jcr:createdBy" properties. Can you use this to asynchronously remove nodes in certain areas of the repository that are older than your TTL value?
Another option is to implement a connector that stores the documents inside a separate Infinispan cache. A connector can control the TTL value of the external nodes in the 2nd level cache, while the Infinispan's expiration settings could purge the entries from that cache.