I don't see a reason why you couldn't configure an Infinispan replicated cache backed up with a different cache store on each node. You just need to make sure you use the same cache name and in the case of Wildfly most likely the same cache-container (not 100% sure that's required though - you should probably ask that in the Infinispan forums).
For more info you can also look at the Infinispan documentation (Infinispan User Guide) as in this particular case this isn't a ModeShape configuration requirement, but an Infinispan one.
I have created a working configuration that follows the clustering configuration example provided in the Configuring ModeShape in WildFly documentation (written by you, I recently discovered). I confirmed that a JCR node created in one cluster node (X) can be successfully fetched from another cluster node (Y). However, is the data replicated from X all the way to Y's file store on the disk? It is difficult to confirm this by looking at the file system. In the end, I need full copies of all data to be in all file stores across the cluster.