Because the EJB would run inside the container which is managed by Arquillian you need to tell Arquillian to start up the container with a debugger listener. This can be accomplished with just passing a system property -Ddebug. If you want to change the listening port just use -Das.debug.port.
mvn test -Dtest=org.jboss.as.test.integration.ee.injection.resource.basic.ResourceInjectionTestCase -Ddebug -Das.debug.port=5005
James R. Perkins