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The short answer is that it is designed around Ahmdahl's law (effective parallelization of work) as opposed to Moore's law (waiting for hardware with a faster clock rate). Almost every CPU powering desktops, laptops, and servers is now at least dual core, and the trend is rapidly expanding.  The days of the frequency race are essentially over.  So, now software must adapt to tap into the power of the hardware of today and tomorrow.


JBoss AS underwent an aggressive transformation to achieve this critical evolution.  With AS 7 we started from scratch and built an entirely new, highly performant, and manageable core architecture from the ground up.  With some truly amazing engineering effort we were able to go from a tiny prototype on github, to the full blown Java EE Web Profile compliant container of today in a little over a year (not to mention that during all of this we also delivered AS 6 which allowed JBoss users early access EE6 technology).


Before explaining, allow me to provide some background.  The core problem an application server is tasked with is managing services.  Nearly all components in a modern application have some kind of life-cycle, meaning that there is some point at which it must be started, and some later point at which it must be stopped.  We label anything that has a life-cycle a service.  Another important property of a service is that they typically have relationships that impact their respective life-cycles.  As an example, we might say that a servlet's service *depends* on a web server. In addition we would probably say that if that servlet uses some other resource like a database connection or an EJB that it depends on those being being available as well.  When an application server starts or deploys it must make sure that it starts all of the various services in the correct order. Further if any of these services are somehow stopped, it must stop all dependents first (essentially reverse order).  This is a fairly simple problem when this is done in a single thread.


JBoss AS 7 on the other hand starts and deploys all services in parallel.  This complex problem is solved by our new service container, the JBoss Modular Service Container.  MSC is essentially an advanced concurrent state machine.  It analyzes the dependencies between all services on the fly and attempts to start as many as it can at the same time, while still adhering to the relationship requirements.  This means that not only is startup blazing fast, but you also now can deploy multiple deployments in parallel.


In addition to parallel services, JBoss AS 7 also has modularity and concurrent class loading.  By segmenting classes into proper modules, the app server can naturally optimize access patterns, and only look in the spot that truly owns the classes.  Also, since the visibility between modules is intentionally limited, searching is cheap.  In the case of JBoss Modules, module resolution and class lookup are O(1).  All of this has a very high degree of concurrency, even a significant portion of class definition.


Deployment processing is also very efficient.  One major optimization is that we index annotation information by quickly scanning a subset of the class file data.  For even greater efficiency we allow modules the ability to pregenerate a space efficient index which is designed to be loaded very quickly.  Yet another deployment optimization is that we carefully cache and reuse reflection data, since the JVM is not very efficient at doing so.


Finally the last major reason I wanted to highlight is that we have and will continue to be very militant about our CPU and memory usage on the start and deploy path.  *This is all about making good choices starting at the design phase*. An interesting example is our moratorium on using JAXB (or any other introspection driven binder) to parse configuration that is only read once.  It ends up spending the same or more time figuring out how to parse than it does doing the actual parsing.  This adds up. In fact, just the XML processing in AS 5 and 6 took longer than the entire 7 boot time.


Hopefully this provides a better picture as to how we made the efficiency gains, and why some things are very different in 7 than in the past.  This, however, is just the beginning. Stay tuned for my next blog which will talk about the overall 7 roadmap.



You may have heard that AS7 Final has been released! . I plan to say a lot about this, but before I do, I wanted to call attention to the many heroes whose contributions made this monumental release possible.


  • Dan Allen
  • Max Rydahl Andersen
  • Dimitris Andreadis
  • John E. Bailey
  • Marius Bogoevici
  • David Bosschaert
  • Heiko Braun
  • Tomaz Cerar
  • Jean-Frederic Clere
  • Thomas Diesler
  • Andrew Dinn
  • Vladimir Dosoudil
  • Stuart Douglas
  • Steve Ebersole
  • Paul Ferraro
  • Howard Gao
  • Paul Gier
  • Stefan Guilhen
  • Ales Justin
  • Kabir Khan
  • Aslak Knutsen
  • David M. Lloyd
  • Darran Lofthouse
  • Alexey Loubyansky
  • Jim Ma
  • Stefano Maestri
  • Scott Marlow
  • Rémy Maucherat
  • Shelly McGowan
  • Bob McWhirter
  • Marcus Moyses
  • Emanuel Muckenhuber
  • Pete Muir
  • Richard Opalka
  • Jaikiran Pai
  • Jonathan Pearlin
  • Jesper Pedersen
  • James Perkins
  • Flavia Rainone
  • Andrew Lee Rubinger
  • Anil Saldhana
  • Stan Silvert
  • Alessio Soldano
  • Brian Stansberry
  • Scott M Stark
  • Andy Taylor
  • Carlo de Wolf
  • Jeff Zhang


and lastly:

  • The JBoss Community, and all our excellent first class components whose authors are too many to mention.

A little over a week ago, Richard Monson-Haefel posted a blog entry trashing the new Java Web Services standard, JAX-WS. He even went so far as to say:

"You guys ought to be ashamed of yourselves. You could have taken this opportunity to re-engineer J2EE web services into something really simple, but you decided to put lipstick on the Pig instead."

Not only was this an unfair evaluation, but the only proof he offered was a rhetorical challenge, to try and implement a real world web service such as Amazon or eBay. The reward, he would eat his words.

So, in order to redeem JAX-WS, I decided to show just how easy it is by taking his challenge. I posted directions for a client that communicates with eBay in his blog comments. To be honest, I never expected to hear anything; however, to my surprise, he literally ate his words. I have to hand it to him for that. Although, he didn't have to go that far (I'm not that mean), a simple correction would have been nice.

Unfortunately, even after eating his words, he still stands by them. Although, this time he says he just means the server side. So here it is folks, the server (notice the steps are almost the same as the client):

  1. Download and install the JAX-WS RI into whatever container you use
  2. Use wsimport, and import the EBay WSDL.
  3. Fix a bug in the RI by correcting the generated endpoint interface to use the following annotation and parameter:

      @WebParam(name = "RequesterCredentials", 

                targetNamespace = "urn:ebay:apis:eBLBaseComponents", 

                partName = "RequesterCredentials", header = true)

      CustomSecurityHeaderType header

  4. Write this class:

    package server;


    import ebay.apis.eblbasecomponents.*;

    import javax.jws.*;




    public class MyEBay implements EBayAPIInterface


        // Use your favorite IDE to implement all interface methods

        // (Omitted for clarity)


       public GetItemResponseType getItem(GetItemRequestType request,

                                          CustomSecurityHeaderType header)


          GetItemResponseType response = new GetItemResponseType();

          ItemType item = new ItemType();



          return response;



  5. build a war with the generated classes, the one developed above, and a web.xml, and sun-jaxws.xml. You can just copy and modify them from the samples directory.
  6. Deploy it and run the client


Some companies have noticed the masses leaving their expensive product line to open source, and they are trying to win those customers back with an "entry-level" open source offering. However, they are still missing the whole point of open source. They get that it's free, but they still think it's free as in beer, and not free as in freedom. So when they give away the crappy entry-level version of their product to "enter the market", they create a huge conflict. They are telling their customer base to choose between freedom and functionality/stability.


Are you willing to give up either?


I know I'm not.



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