Yes and No. You can not dynamically pass the source credentials from VDB execution statement. However, you can configure such that
1) You can use the same user/password at the source as the Teiid connection
2) Have a role based credential map. i.e. if your users belong to a role, the role name and password can be used based on the logged in user. This may be close to what you are looking for.
For this you need to be using one of the latest 7.2 beta or later releases. Check out the "Teiid Admin Guide" document, Teiid Security chapter for details for security at the data source.