No, the tableNamePattern and schemaPattern are directly fed into the JDBC DatabaseMetadata used to retrieve the metadata. As per the spec those are like patterns, but you can consult your source to see if it has alternative support. What you are looking for is the excludeTables pattern that does use regular expressions and is applied after the tableNamePattern and schemaPattern. See https://docs.jboss.org/author/display/TEIID/JDBC+Translator for more.
Thanks Steve for the information.