I haven't seen that sort of framework in JBoss or elsewhere.
(You could contribute one.)
The problem is that a MDB may or may not have any particular outputs, like a web server. Depending on what your MDB does, it might update the database or send a file to an FTP site. It is just a matter of sending a message to the MDB deployed on JBoss (10-15 lines of code, really) then checking to see that it did what it was supposed to do. You can also check if a message was processed using a message selector or remote JMX.