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"How many threads should I create?". Many years before one of my friends asked me the question, then I gave him the answer follow the guideline with " Number of  CPU core + 1". Most of you will be nodding when you are reading here. Unfortunately all of us are wrong at that point.


Right now I would give the answer with if your archiecture was based on shared resource model then your thread number should be "Number of CPU core + 1" with better throughput, but if your architecture was shared-nothing model (like SEDA, ACTOR) then you could create as many thread as your need.

[Walk Through]

So here came one question why so many eldership continuely gave us the guideline with "Number of  Cpu core + 1", because they told us the context switching of thread was heavy and would block your system scalability. But noboday noticed the programming or architecture model they were under. So if you read carefully you would find most of them described the pragramming or architecture model were based on shared resource model.


Give you several examples:

1. Socket programming - socket layer was shared by many requests, so you need context switch between every requests.

2. Information provider system - most customer will contiuely access the same request



So they would meet the multiple requests access the same resource situation so system would require add lock to that resource since consistency requirement of their system. Lock contention would come into play so the context swich of multiple threading would be very heavy.


After I find this interesting thing, I consider willother programming or architecture models can walk around that limitation. So if shared resource model has failed for creating more java threading, maybe we can try shared nothing model.


So fortunately I get one chance create one system need large scalability, the system need send out lots of notfication in very quick manner. So I decide go ahead with SEDA model for trial and leverage with my multiple-lane commonj pattern, current I can run the java application with maximum number around 600 threads if your java heap setting with 1.5 gigabytes in one machine.


So how about the average memory consumption for one java thread is around 512 kilobytes (Ref:, so 600 threads almost you need 300M memory consumption (include java native and java heap). And if you system design is good, the 300M usage will  not your burden acutally.


By the way in windows you can't create more then 1000 since windows can't handle the threads very well, but you can create 1000 threads in linux if you leverage with NPTL. So many persons told you java couldn't handle large concurrent job processings that wasn't 100% true.

Someone may ask how about thread itself lifecycle swap: ready - runnable - running - waiting. I would say java and latest OS already could handle them suprisingly effecient, and if you have mutliple-core cpu and turn on NUMA the whole performance will be enhanced more further. So it's not your bottleneck at least from very beginning phase.


Of course create thread and make thread to running stage are very heavy things, so please leverage with threadpool (jdk: executors)


And you could ref : for power of many java threads



In the future how will you answer the question "How many java threads should I create?". I hope your answer will change to:

1. if your archiecture was based on shared resource model then your thread number should be "Number of CPU core + 1" with better throughput

2. if your architecture was shared-nothing model (like SEDA, ACTOR) then you could create as many thread as your need.



Every time when my supervisor ask me assessing the capability or performance of team member I feel very nervous, because I don't want any kinds of wrong assessment will result with wrong impression. But fortunately I try my best conclude serveral principals helpping me find out "how good of design you could". It is very important because it will help my supervisor find out who could get the deserved promotion and keep the whole team have the enough energy and good competition atmoshpere. So here I will list that.



  • Novice Level
    • clearness  - need communication and documentation for understanding
    • configuration  - less
    • coupling - tight coupling
    • reusability - beginning
    • diagnostic - hard
    • maintainance - hard
  • Proficient Level
    • clearness - need less communication and documentation for understanding
    • configuration - beginning
    • coupling - mixed tight coupling and loose coupling without correct judgement
    • reusability - intermediate
    • diagnostic - improvement or have capability
    • maintainance - improvement or have capability
    • complexity - beginning hide complexity
    • autonomy - beginning
    • flexibility - beginning
    • manageability - beginning
  • Senior Level
    • clearness - only need documentation could be understandable
    • configuration - intermediate and have more configuration capability
    • coupling - selection between tight coupling and loose coupling
    • reusability - beginning have the capability be reused by different senarios
    • diagnostic - provide the capability
    • maintainance - less effort for maintainence
    • complexity - most of complexity were hidden
    • autonomy - more autonomy decision happen
    • flexibility - provide enough flexibility for change
    • manageability - easy for manage
    • modulization - component idea come into play
    • scalability - beginning
  • Guru Level  (Note: I'm not guru so here were my guess)
    • clearness - easy for understandable
    • configuration - completely could be configurable
    • coupling - select suitable coupling strategy in different senarios
    • reusability - could be reused by different senarios
    • diagnostic - not only have the capability but also provide the assistance mechanism
    • maintainance - easy for maintainence
    • complexity - completely hide the complexity
    • autonomy - autonomy will be built-in
    • flexibility - easy accomodate many kinds of change
    • modulization - architecture and component idea come into play
    • manageability - not only have the capability but also provide the assistance mechanism
    • scalability - easy for scale improve the efficiency





1. The separation wasn't finalized. So that didn't mean if you already designed somthing many year but you didn't familar some term then you are not the level you are.

2. Nobody will capture all the factors, if you master some of them then you are that level already.

3. Even you understand the factors of one level, but if without practice and project proving we cannot tell which level you are.

4. Please not use this forum directly judge any person. Please reading and understanding that then refer from that for your judgement.

5. If you have different opinion, please throw out your points here. , stick or flower I will accpt.





I wasn't master of guru for design part, I just had many design experiences and all the information were my experience and study. So if may or may not accurate and each term I assume you know that. If not, please email to me: I will help you on that.